In the understanding and discussion of public relations practice and theory, one of the most dominant and critical paradigms is excellence theory. However, serious theoretical issues of ethicality, efficacy, reliability, and validity have been faced by this specific dominance.
Although the excellence theory has been critiqued in the past by various scholars, yet still an evocative combination of these rambling critiques has not been produced. One of the most researched co-creational approached in public relations has been the excellence and symmetry theory. Mutual understanding is promoted and conflicts are managed by the symmetry public relations. Both the excellence and symmetric concepts have been perceived as the dominant theories of public relations.
The two-way symmetric model of communication is one of the most preferred models of public relations practice out of the other three models, i.e., two-way asymmetrical, public information and press gentry. According to this model, equality of resources and power must be present among actors of the organization. Secondly, symmetrical communication is not workable in cultures that are high in power-distance and those that prefer hierarchical structure.
One of the most general theories of public relations is the excellence theory. This theory was forwarded by Professor James Gruing. This theory specified how the financial value of the public relations can be calculated, it analyses the conditions through which the organizational environments and the organizations can be made more effective, it also identify how public relations contributes to the effectiveness and management of organizations and how organizations can be made more efficient through effective practice of public relations.