Sociology is the study of human development from a child to a mature adult, consisting of the different stages of socialization which they have to go through. There are many figures who have contributed majorly in Sociology; each individual has marked a place in it. Below are some of the major figures in Sociology:
- Charles Horton Cooley (1864-1929): His theory about us forming our personality was that we develop our self-image through interacting with our significant others. The significant other here refers to those people whose opinions matter to us, and who influences our way of thinking. His theory is called the “looking-glass self.”
- Emile Durkheim (1858-1917): He was a French sociologist who believed in studying the route between social integration and suicide rates. Durkheim stated that people who commit suicide are those people who have low social integration. He went against the point of Functionalist, that everything is not in a consensus and that deviance is necessary in every society.
- Sigmund Freud (1856-1939): Freud’s work has both been criticized and praised, he is generally known as the father of psychoanalysis (Analysis of the mind). He stated that a healthy human brain consisted of three parts: the id, superego and ego.
- Erving Goffman (1922-1982): He is recognized for his theory of dramaturgy and the concepts of stigma, spoiled identity and impression management, and many others. He believed that we all are actors playing role on the stage of everyday life. He also formed the concept of a total institution, which is a restrictive setting, such as jail, of which we are members 24/7. Furthermore, he stated that our appearance would change as we get influenced by the way people see us.
- Henry Harlow (1905-1981): He studied the effects of social isolation on rhesus monkeys. He discovered that monkeys who were raised in isolation were able to overcome it and that there was mother-child love in monkeys due to cuddling.
- Karl Marx (1818-1883): He emphasized that everything in the society is linked with the economy. Marx felt that the lower working classes were exploited, and that the capitalist passed out laws. Furthermore, he stated that the working class children are trained to follow the bourgeoisies through the primary stages of sociologist.
- George Herbert Mead (1863-1931): Mead suggested that an individual develops their image by interacting with other people. He later added that our self-image has two stages: the “I” starts the action and the “Me” prolongs it.