Essay: Western Europe
Different improvements happened in different states of this continent. In England for example, in the year 1066, the Norman Conquest had led to a kingdom that had its leadership of Francophone nobility. Ireland was invaded by Normans taking over it completely since they established themselves in all over the country with their most powers in the southeast. Wales and Scotland were also subdued but it did not take long before Scotland could get back its independence. In the 12th century, Exchequer was formed under the leadership of King Henry I and this led to the formation of the first parliaments. Later, in the year 1215, Normandy lost and King John signed Magna Carta into law and this put limitation son the powers of the English Monarchs (Haverkamp & Vollrath 105).
In Scandinavia, there were unions which led to suppressing of the raids of the Vikings and also made grater involvements in the politics of Europe. Both Norway and England were ruled by King Cnut of Denmark but unfortunately, he died in 1035. This led to the loss of Norway and England and further in the year 1227, Valdemar II was defeated and thus the end of Danish predominance. This was a result of developments in the regions involved since Norway had its Atlantic possessions extended to Isle of Man and Greenland while Sweden Built a power base under Birger Jarl in the Baltic Sea. It should be noted that there was decline in the Norwegian influence with the mark of the 1226 Treaty of Perth followed by civil wars of 1130-1240.