Essay: Historical Background of Islam
Islam began developing as from the 7th century with the reconstruction of Prophet Muhammad’s life after his death. It started spreading in Atlantic Ocean to Central Asia after Prophet Muhammad’s first recitation of the Koran. According to Williams, The Great Mosque of Kairouan is considered as origin of the western Islamic world mosques and is preserved up to now (97). Reference to Abdul-Rahman Islamic dynasties like Ottomans and Mughals collapsed under the European imperial sway during 18th and 19th centuries (141-160).
Muhammad started conveying Islam at Mecca and later moved to Medina where the tribes of Arabia were united to a polity of Arab Muslim religion. Umar succeeded him in 634 following his death. The other successors were Uthman bin al-Affan and Ali bin Talib; the four are referred to as al-khulafa ar-rashidun. Several conflicts followed over political and religious leadership, which led to the rise of schism amongst the Muslims. The origin of Islam is tied to the economic, political and military aspects of those times, as the Arabs wanted an organization that could bring them closer together.