Essay: Genetic Variation in Biological Anthropology
Genetic variation has been an issue in biological anthropology over the years. Some researchers have argued that genetic drift effects cause this difference while others argue that it is because of “deterministic effects of natural selection” (6). The natural selection factors are argued to be affecting variance in genes such that “different genes have different values in different environments” (6). His study found out that human biological variance could be examined by population history and structure. It was concluded that most of the variations between groups of people were because of what in reality is going on in the groups.
Biological structure in populations is merely demographic; caused by factors such as differential mortality and fertility, mating patterns, population size and migration among other factors. Although these factors have to be measured, it takes a very long time before demographic structure equilibrates since the demographic forces are changing. Records, which have been kept for quite a number of years, have to be used to finalize these studies. With these records, a researcher is able to find data regarding issues like mortality and fertility and marital movement thus making it easy to determine the genetic structure of the people in question. It was found that intermarriage rates in terms of marital distance were increased after transport was made easy after the construction of railway lines and improvement of roads. With this research, it becomes easy to predict the time when it happens that many neighboring people share same ancestry. This kind of conclusion will only apply for the genes, which are involved in the intermarriage structure of families.