Essay: Cognitive theory
Table1.sensory motor sub-stages
|The reflex scheme stage||0-1 month||Development of reflexes|
|Primary circular reactions||1-4 months||Habits development|
|Secondary circular reactions||4-8 months||Vision and prehension coordination development (hand eye development)|
|co-ordination of secondary course round modest circular reactions||8-12 months||Object permanence development|
|The tertiary circular reactions||12-18 months||Experimentation and creativity in the actions|
|Beginnings of symbolic representation||18-24 months||Mental combinations (achieving a goal without resorting to trial-and-error experiments)|
Source: Stafford, D. & Kellogg, D. (2005) “Research, teaching, and learning with the Piaget model”: Educational psychology for teacher, vol. 13, p. 218-224
Table2. General characteristics of cognitive development stages
|Sensory Motor (0 – 24 months)||Simple reflex activity such as grasping, sucking.
Reflexive behaviors occur in stereotyped repetition such as opening and closing fingers repetitively.
Responses become coordinated into more complex sequences
Discovery of new ways to produce the same consequence
|The Preoperational (2-7 years)||Increased use of verbal representation but speech is egocentric.
Speech becomes more social, less egocentric
|Period of Concrete (7-11 years)||Evidence for organized, logical thought
Ability to perform multiple classification tasks, order objects in a logical sequence, and comprehend the principle of conservation
Thinking becomes less transductive and less egocentric.
The child is capable of concrete problem-solving
|Period of Formal (11-15 years)||Thought becomes more abstract, incorporating the principles of formal logic
Ability to generate abstract propositions, multiple hypotheses and their possible outcomes
Thinking becomes less tied to concrete reality
Source: Berk, L (2006).Development through the lifespan”: Educational Psychology Interactive, vol. 13, p. 43-51
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