Essay: Cognitive theory

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Essay: Cognitive theory

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Table1.sensory motor sub-stages

Stage Period Development
The reflex scheme stage 0-1 month Development of reflexes
Primary circular reactions 1-4 months Habits development
Secondary circular reactions 4-8 months Vision and prehension coordination development (hand eye development)
co-ordination of secondary course round modest circular reactions 8-12 months Object permanence development
The tertiary circular reactions 12-18 months Experimentation and creativity in the actions
Beginnings of symbolic representation 18-24 months Mental combinations (achieving a goal without resorting to trial-and-error experiments)

Source: Stafford, D. & Kellogg, D. (2005) “Research, teaching, and learning with the Piaget model”: Educational psychology for teacher, vol. 13, p. 218-224

Table2. General characteristics of cognitive development stages

Stages Characteristics
Sensory Motor (0 – 24 months) Simple reflex activity such as grasping, sucking.

Reflexive behaviors occur in stereotyped repetition such as opening and closing fingers repetitively.

Responses become coordinated into more complex sequences

Discovery of new ways to produce the same consequence

Deferred imitation

The Preoperational (2-7 years) Increased use of verbal representation but speech is egocentric.

Speech becomes more social, less egocentric

Period of Concrete (7-11 years) Evidence for organized, logical thought

Ability to perform multiple classification tasks, order objects in a logical sequence, and comprehend the principle of conservation

Thinking becomes less transductive and less egocentric.

The child is capable of concrete problem-solving

Period of Formal (11-15 years) Thought becomes more abstract, incorporating the principles of formal logic

Ability to generate abstract propositions, multiple hypotheses and their possible outcomes

Thinking becomes less tied to concrete reality

Source: Berk, L (2006).Development through the lifespan”: Educational Psychology Interactive, vol. 13, p. 43-51

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