Essay: Cognitive development stages
Concrete operational stage
This stage starts from 7 to11 years that encroaches elementary and early adolescence. Jean Piajet emphasize that this is a significant stage in child cognitive development, since it is characterized by 7 types of conservations; length, value, area, number, liquid: weight and mass. Whereby, failure of child to develop successful can lead to future difficulties in those critical aspects. In addition to that, important cognitive processes occur and develop in this stage. For instance, seritation which is ability to sort objects in order of size, color and shape; classification abilities: decentering; reversabilityabilities; conservation and egocentric elimination. However, in this stage intelligence is demonstrated by logical and systematic manipulation of symbols which are related to concrete objects, while operational thinking develops fully (Piaget, 1972; Bruner, 1966).
Formal operational stage
Despite being the fourth stage of cognitive development, this stage is also crucial and important stage in cognitive development. It starts from 11 years onwards, whereby intelligence is demonstrated by the use of logical symbols which are related to abstract ideas. This stage is greatly characterized by reasoning logically; thinking abstractly; and ability to draw conclusion from the thought of ideas. Young adult who has attained this stage is able to think and understand social domains like values, love and logical proofs. Sadly, research conducted in relation to this stage in Piajet’s cognitive development theory reveals that only 35% of children that reaches this final stage in cognitive development, especially in industrialized countries. This was research may prove a point of worth as parallel research conducted indicated that many adults today in the world do not think formal during their adulthood stage (Haan, 2007, p. 204).