Essay: Arguments for Anti-Reductionism
Directionality of Causation
Proponents of anti-reductionism advocate that causes precede their effects, except in some special cases. In his work, Russell tried to figure it out what supplies the directionality that is evidently crucial to causation. His presentation viewed in addition to causation preceding their effect, causation is also an asymmetric relation . Thus, the world is deterministic, in the sense that the complete state of our world at any one time together with the laws of nature determined the state of the world at all earlier times and at all later times.
For instance, in the complex dynamical systems case of the pendulum whereby Aristotle believed that earth, water, air and fire had their natural positions. And thus, the pendulum overcomes its impetus to come to rest . On the same notion, Newton in his theory of inertia states that objects remains at rest or movement without external force. Newton explains that air friction slows down the pendulum . Therefore, in this case, it can be inferred that the state of the world of gases together with the natural law in terms of the influence of gravitational force combines to determine the oscillations of the pendulum.