Essay: Anti Aristotelian campaign
In conducting his anti-Aristotelian campaign by reviewing the scientific subjects, Descartes conducts this campaign as captured in his mediations on first philosophy. First, Descartes criticize Aristotelian physics, especially celestial physics or astronomy that Aristotle’s explanation was based on the qualities of heat and cold, wet and dry. But according to Descartes questioning of the explanation, he suggests that its ultimate explanatory concepts ought to be based on extension, shape, motion, and position. If the explanatory concept is grounded that way in his views, then explanations shall be based on reason rather than sense as the main cognitive capacity underlying science.
Furthermore, his mediations of the Existence of Material Things and of the Real distinction between the Soul and Body of Man resulted to an idea of the human as essentially spiritual, as opposed to one entity but temporarily connected to a material body, which knows that this perceptions are valid because God is no deceiver. The question about God existence, he amplifies that we know about God because we couldn’t have even the concept of so perfect a being unless God had put it into us. He compares this to a mark of the craftsman on his work, thus, implying craft work is made by a craftsman and without existence of craftsman, and craft work can not exist. While his mediation of the Things which may be brought within the Sphere of the Doubtful he claims that isn’t more than saying that “I know what I know”, and “I think because Am” whereby he goes further and justify this by saying “one of the things I know is a benevolent God” The mediations to a greater extend forms the basis for the foundation of modern philosophy, in the sense that the questions raised by Descartes were right for its time, but today they can serve only as a basis of helping philosophers on discovering how to answer.